Business types in Romania offer entrepreneurs the opportunity to delve into the country’s vibrant economy. Selecting the appropriate business entity that aligns with their vision is paramount for success. This comprehensive guide outlines the diverse options available, empowering entrepreneurs to make informed decisions.

Popular Business Types in Romania

  • Limited Liability Company (Societate cu Răspundere Limitată – SRL): SRLs are the undisputed champions for offering a winning combination of simplicity and flexibility. SRLS are the most common of the business types in Romania. They perfectly fit many businesses, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and startups. The owners of SRLs enjoy limited liability, which means their personal assets are safe from company debts beyond their investment. The ease of formation and a minimum share capital requirement of just 200 RON (approximately €43) further cement their popularity. However, it’s important to remember that SRLs come with certain limitations, such as a maximum of 50 shareholders and the inability to raise capital publicly.

Why SRLs are the most common business type in Romania:

Several factors contribute to the dominance of SRLs being the champion of the main business types in Romania:

  • Simplicity: Setting up an SRL is a relatively straightforward process compared to other entities like SAs.
  • Cost-Effectiveness: The low minimum share capital requirement makes SRLs attractive for entrepreneurs with limited initial investment.
  • Flexibility: SRLs offer flexibility in terms of management structure and ownership distribution.
  • Limited Liability: This crucial feature protects owners’ personal assets from business debts, providing a safety net for entrepreneurs.

Opening an SRL: A Streamlined Process

The process of opening an SRL in Romania is generally considered streamlined:

  1. Choose a Business Name and Activity: Select a unique and appropriate name for your company and outline the specific business activities you plan to undertake.
  2. Prepare the Articles of Association: This document outlines the company’s structure, ownership details, and operational framework.
  3. Deposit the Share Capital: The minimum share capital of 200 RON needs to be deposited into a company bank account.
  4. Register with the Trade Register: File the necessary documentation and pay the registration fee at the National Trade Register Office (ONRC).
  5. Obtain Necessary Permits and Licenses: Depending on your business activity, you might need to acquire additional permits or licenses from relevant authorities.

Exploring all 7 Business Types in Romania

While SRLs, SAs (Public Limited Companies), and PFAs (Sole Proprietorships) dominate the scene, there are other several business types in Romania:

  • General Partnership (Societate în Nume Colectiv – SNC):  A partnership between two or more individuals who share ownership and unlimited liability for the company’s debts. This structure fosters a close-knit collaboration but exposes partners to significant personal risk.
  • Limited Partnership (Societate în Comandită Simplă – SCS): Similar to SNCs, but with two partner categories: general partners with unlimited liability and limited partners whose liability is restricted to their capital contributions. This offers a blend of active management and passive investment.
  • Joint Stock Partnership (Societate în Comandită pe Acțiuni – SCA): A less common entity, bridging the gap between SAs and SCSs. It incorporates features of both, with ownership divided into shares like an SA while maintaining a partnership structure with general and limited partners.
  • Cooperative (Societate Cooperativă): Prioritizes democratic control and shared ownership. Members, individuals, or legal entities collectively own and operate the cooperative. Profits and losses are distributed amongst the members, often based on “one member, one vote.” Cooperatives often flourish in sectors like agriculture or consumer goods.
  • Public Limited Company (Societate pe Acțiuni – SA): Suitable for large-scale operations with significant capital needs, SAs have ownership divided into freely tradable shares, which attracts more investors. This structure offers limited liability to shareholders, similar to SRLs. However, SAs have a more complex setup process and stricter regulations than their SRL counterparts. The minimum share capital requirement of €25,000 reflects the larger scale and potential capital intensity of businesses that opt for the SA structure. Additionally, SAs have a more intricate governance framework, often involving shareholder assemblies and boards of directors to oversee operations and decision-making.
  • Sole Proprietorship (Persoana Fizică Autorizată – PFA): The PFA (Persoană Fizică Autorizată) is a type of business entity in Romania that is mainly suitable for freelancers and individuals with a taxable income close to the minimum wage. It is relatively easy to establish and an excellent option for solo entrepreneurs just starting their business journey. However, this ease of setup has a significant drawback – unlimited liability for the owner. This means that the owner’s personal assets are at risk for any business debts incurred. For entrepreneurs looking to reduce their individual risk exposure, PFAs may not be the most appropriate option.

Choosing the right business type in Romania:

Selecting the most suitable business entity hinges on several crucial factors specific to your venture:

  • Size and Scale of Operations: SAs provide a framework for raising significant funds and facilitating complex operations for large-scale, capital-intensive businesses. Conversely, smaller companies might find SRLs or even PFAs (if risk tolerance allows) to be more efficient and cost-effective options.
  • Liability Protection: If shielding personal assets from business debts is a top priority, SRLs and SAs offer limited liability protection to their owners. In contrast, SNCs expose all partners to unlimited liability, while SCSs offer a partial shield with limited liability for some partners.
  • Capital Requirements: SRLs boast a low minimum share capital requirement, making them attractive for startups. SAs, on the other hand, have a significantly higher minimum capital requirement, reflecting the larger scale of businesses they typically cater to. PFAs require no minimum capital contribution.
  • Complexity: SRLs and PFAs are generally simpler to set up and manage than SAs and SCAs, which involve more complex procedures and regulations.
  • Management Structure:  The level of control and participation you desire in decision-making will also influence your choice. SRLs and SAs offer more flexibility in management structures, while cooperatives prioritize democratic participation by members.


Understanding the different business types in Romania allows you to make an informed decision that aligns with your business goals and risk tolerance. Limited Liability Companies (SRLs) reign supreme due to their simplicity, cost-effectiveness, flexibility, and limited liability protection. However, the optimal choice depends on your unique circumstances. Consulting with a qualified lawyer or business advisor familiar with Romanian regulations can provide valuable guidance throughout establishing your business in this dynamic and growing economy.

Ready to take the plunge? This comprehensive guide equips you with the knowledge to navigate the world of Romanian business entities. You can confidently choose the structure that best supports your entrepreneurial journey!

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